28 Jun

short term side effectsObvious signs may include:

excessive thirst
frequent urination
Confused, anxious and/or irritable
Dizziness and shaking
sweating and chills

In addition, patients may also experience some constipation and mild acidosis. These effects tend to improve when the diet is continued, as the body adapts to the new diet and adjusts how it obtains energy.

changes in blood composition

Due to changes in 生酮飲食 and the body's adaptive mechanisms in response to reduced carbohydrate intake, there are some changes in the blood composition of individuals following a ketogenic diet. In particular, lipid and cholesterol levels in the blood are often higher than normal. Over 60% of patients had elevated blood lipid levels and over 30% had elevated cholesterol levels. If the changes are profound and there are some concerns about the child's health, then minor changes to the individual patient's diet can be made. For example, saturated fat sources can replace polyunsaturated fats. In some cases, it may be necessary to lower the ketogenic ratio and reduce the ratio of fat to carbohydrate and protein in the diet.

Long term impact

Other more pronounced adverse effects occur when the ketogenic diet is continued for a longer period of time, with a greater impact on the individual. Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiasis, are a common complication in children following a diet, affecting about 5 percent of patients. However, it is treatable and current recommendations suggest that the diet should be continued. Kidney stone formation is thought to be associated with hypocitraturia and hypercalciuria when acidosis causes bone demineralization. Additionally, low pH in urine promotes crystal formation, which can eventually lead to kidney stones. There is some evidence that potassium citrate supplementation reduces the incidence of kidney stones because it binds to calcium in the blood and lowers its levels. However, more research is needed on this. In addition, patients are at increased risk of fractures. This stems from altered insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and the effects of acidosis. Acidosis causes bone erosion, making bones weak and prone to fractures. To manage these side effects, vitamin and mineral supplementation is often recommended for patients following a ketogenic diet. This usually includes multivitamins, calcium and vitamin D.

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